CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Republic of China (Taiwan)

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Published Date: 11-Jun-2015
No. of pages: 241

GlobalData, the industry analysis specialist, has released its latest report, “CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Republic of China (Taiwan)”. The report is an essential source of information and analysis on the healthcare, regulatory and reimbursement landscape in the Republic of China (Taiwan). It identifies the key trends in the country’s healthcare market and provides insights into its demographic, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape and healthcare infrastructure. Most importantly, the report provides valuable insights into the trends and segmentation of its pharmaceutical and medical device markets. It is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, secondary research, and in-house analysis by GlobalData’s team of industry experts.

Taiwan’s population increased slightly between 2008 and 2013 from 23.0 to 23.4 million, mainly due to a rising life expectancy. However, the birth rate decreased at a negative Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 0.2%. The pharmaceutical market was estimated at $5.4 billion in 2013 and is projected to reach $8.4 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 6.4%. The medical device market was worth $2.2 billion in 2013 and is projected to reach $3.1 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 5.3%, primarily attributed to an increasingly elderly population, and universal healthcare coverage. Government initiatives, such as a reduction in income tax for new pharmaceutical companies that establish themselves in Taiwan, are intended to encourage foreign companies to invest and will further boost the market.

Scope

The report provides information on the healthcare, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape in Taiwan, and includes –

  • An overview of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets, comprising market size, segmentation, and key drivers and barriers
  • Profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the pharmaceutical market: Pfizer, Sanofi, GlaxoSmithKline, Yung Shin Pharmaceutical, and China Chemical & Pharmaceutical; and of major players in the medical device market: Baxter International, Fresenius Medical Care, Siemens Healthcare, GE Healthcare, and China Chemical & Pharmaceutical
  • Insightful review of the reimbursement and regulatory landscape, with analysis covering details of the healthcare reimbursement process, regulatory agencies, and the approval processes for new drugs and medical devices
  • Detailed analysis of the political and economic environment, covering economic indicators, demographics, healthcare infrastructure, and healthcare expenditure
  • An overview of the opportunities for and challenges to growth in the Taiwanese healthcare market

Reasons to buy

This report will enhance your decision-making capability by allowing you to –

  • Develop business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Taiwan’s healthcare market
  • Drive revenues by understanding the key trends, reimbursement and regulatory policies, pharmaceutical market segments, and companies likely to affect Taiwan’s healthcare market in the future
  • Formulate effective sales and marketing strategies by understanding the competitive landscape and analyzing the performance of competitors
  • Organize your sales and marketing efforts by identifying the market categories and segments that present the best opportunities for consolidation, investment, and strategic partnership
  • Identify, understand, and capitalize on the opportunities and challenges in Taiwan’s healthcare market

Table of Contents For This Report

Table of Contents

1 Table of Contents 6

1.1 List of Tables 9

1.2 List of Figures 13

2 Introduction 18

2.1 GlobalData Report Guidance 18

3 Overview of Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Markets 19

3.1 Pharmaceutical Market 19

3.1.1 Market Overview 19

3.1.2 Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 23

3.1.3 Supply Channels 24

3.1.4 Market Segments 24

3.1.5 Overview of Top Five Disease Areas 27

3.1.6 Major Players 30

3.2 Medical Device Market 63

3.2.1 Market Overview 63

3.2.2 Overview of Top Five Segments 65

3.2.3 Diagnostic market 76

3.2.4 Major Players 77

3.3 Market Drivers and Barriers 107

3.3.1 Drivers 107

3.3.2 Barriers 108

4 Market Access 110

4.1 Reimbursement and Payer Landscape 110

4.1.1 Overview of Healthcare System 110

4.1.2 Reimbursement Process 113

4.1.3 Overview of Insurance Providers 116

4.1.4 Patient Share in Healthcare Spending 120

4.1.5 Price Trend in Healthcare Services 121

4.1.6 Pricing Policies 123

4.2 Regulatory Landscape 124

4.2.1 Overview of Regulatory Agencies 124

4.2.2 Market Authorization Procedure for Pharmaceutical Products 126

4.2.3 Market Authorization Procedure for Medical Devices 130

4.2.4 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Manufacturing 133

4.2.5 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 136

4.2.6 Intellectual Property Rights 137

4.2.7 Clinical Trial Regulations 140

4.2.8 Pharmaceutical Advertising Regulations 141

4.2.9 Pharmacy Regulations 142

4.2.10 Labeling and Packaging Regulations 143

5 Country Analysis 144

5.1 Political Environment 144

5.1.1 Political Structure 144

5.1.2 Analysis of the Current Political Environment 145

5.1.3 Healthcare Policy Initiatives 146

5.2 Economic Landscape 148

5.3 Economic Indicators 149

5.3.1 Gross Domestic Product 149

5.3.2 National Income per Capita 153

5.3.3 Inflation 154

5.3.4 Currency Exchange Rate 158

5.3.5 Foreign Direct Investment 159

5.3.6 Foreign Exchange Reserves 160

5.3.7 Trade Balance 162

5.3.8 Government Structural Balance 164

5.3.9 General Government Gross Debt 166

5.3.10 Major Industries 168

5.4 Demographics 169

5.4.1 Population 169

5.4.2 Education and Literacy 185

5.4.3 Employment 186

5.4.4 Disease Burden 189

5.5 Healthcare Infrastructure 190

5.5.1 Healthcare Facilities 190

5.5.2 Healthcare Parameters 201

5.5.3 Environmental Health 203

5.5.4 Healthcare Personnel 206

5.6 Healthcare Expenditure 210

5.6.1 Overview 210

5.6.2 Major Components of Healthcare Spending 211

5.6.3 Public and Private Sector Share 213

5.6.4 Spending in Pharmaceutical Research and Development 215

5.7 Trade Associations 216

5.7.1 Taiwan Medical and Biotech Industry Association 216

5.7.2 Taiwan Public Health Association 216

5.7.3 Taiwan Medical Association 216

5.7.4 Taiwan Generic Pharmaceutical Association 216

5.8 Trade Fairs 217

6 Opportunities and Challenges 218

6.1 Opportunities 218

6.2 Challenges 219

7 Appendix 221

7.1 Abbreviations 221

7.2 Bibliography 225

7.3 Research Methodology 238

7.3.1 Coverage 238

7.3.2 Secondary Research 239

7.3.3 Forecasts 239

7.3.4 Expert Panel 239

7.4 Disclaimer 240

List of Tables

Table 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Taiwan, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 21

Table 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Taiwan, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 22

Table 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Taiwan, Exports and Imports ($bn), 2008-2013 23

Table 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Taiwan, Market Segments of Newly Emerging Biotech Industry by Share (%), 2009 27

Table 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Taiwan, Top Five Therapeutic Areas by Expenditure on Personal Health Care, 2013 28

Table 6: Pharmaceutical Market , Pfizer, Global, Major Products, Revenue, 2014 31

Table 7: Pharmaceutical Market, Pfizer, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2015 32

Table 8: Pharmaceutical Market, Sanofi, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($m), 2013 39

Table 9: Pharmaceutical Market, Sanofi, Global, Late-stage Pipeline, 2015 40

Table 10: Pharmaceutical Market, GlaxoSmithKline, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2014 47

Table 11: Pharmaceutical Market, GlaxoSmithKline, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2014 48

Table 12: Pharmaceutical Market, Major Products, China Chemical and Pharmaceutical Co., 2013 59

Table 13: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 64

Table 14: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 65

Table 15: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Nephrology and Urology Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 67

Table 16: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Nephrology and Urology Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 67

Table 17: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Ophthalmic Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 69

Table 18: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Ophthalmic Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 69

Table 19: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, In Vitro Diagnostics Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 71

Table 20: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, In Vitro Diagnostics Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 71

Table 21: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Cardiovascular Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 73

Table 22: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Cardiovascular Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 73

Table 23: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Orthopedic Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 75

Table 24: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Orthopedic Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 75

Table 25: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 76

Table 26: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($m), 2014-2020 77

Table 27: Medical Device Market, Major Products, Baxter International, Global, Revenue, 2014 78

Table 28: Medical Device Market, Major Products, Fresenius Medical Care, 2014 85

Table 29: Medical Device Market, Major Products, Medtronic, 2014 102

Table 30: Healthcare System, Taiwan, NHI Premium Formulas, 2014 118

Table 31: Healthcare System, Taiwan, Basic Outpatient Care Co-payments, 2014 119

Table 32: Healthcare System, Taiwan, Basic Outpatient Care Co-payments, 2014 120

Table 33: Healthcare Spending, Taiwan, Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (%), 2008-2013 121

Table 34: Market Access, Taiwan, Price Trend in Healthcare Services (%), 2008-2013 122

Table 35: Healthcare System, Taiwan, Registration Fee Structure for New Drug Application ($), 2014 129

Table 36: Healthcare System, Taiwan, Regulatory Requirement for Medical Devices, 2013 130

Table 37: Market Access, Taiwan, Schedule of Patent Fees, 2014 138

Table 38: Market Access, Taiwan, Schedule of Trademark Fees, 2014 139

Table 39: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 150

Table 40: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 151

Table 41: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 152

Table 42: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 153

Table 43: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 154

Table 44: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 155

Table 45: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 156

Table 46: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 157

Table 47: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Currency Exchange Rate (TWD/$), 2008-2013 158

Table 48: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 160

Table 49: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 161

Table 50: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 162

Table 51: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 164

Table 52: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 165

Table 53: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, General Government Gross Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 166

Table 54: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, General Government Gross Debt Forecast (% of GDP), 2014-2020 167

Table 55: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Major Industries, Gross Domestic Product by Industry ($bn), 2013 169

Table 56: Demographics, Taiwan, Population (million), 2008-2013 170

Table 57: Demographics, Taiwan, Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 171

Table 58: Demographics, Taiwan, Urban-Rural Population (%), 2008-2013 172

Table 59: Demographics, Taiwan, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 174

Table 60: Demographics, Taiwan, Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 174

Table 61: Demographics, Taiwan, Births (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 176

Table 62: Demographics, Taiwan, Mortality (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 177

Table 63: Demographics, Taiwan, Major Causes of Mortality (per 100,000 population), 2013 178

Table 64: Demographics, Taiwan, Children under Five, Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live births), 2008-2013 179

Table 65: Demographics, Taiwan, Immunization Rate (%), 2013 181

Table 66: Demographics, Taiwan, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 183

Table 67: Demographics, Taiwan, Life Expectancy at Birth (years), 2008-2013 184

Table 68: Demographics, Taiwan, Student Net Enrollment by Level of Education (%), 2013 186

Table 69: Demographics, Taiwan, Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 187

Table 70: Demographics, Taiwan, Employment by Sector (?000), 2013 189

Table 71: Demographics, Taiwan, Personal Health Expenditure by Disease (%), 2013 190

Table 72: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Hospitals, 2008-2013 191

Table 73: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Public and Private Hospitals, 2008-2013 192

Table 74: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Public Hospitals, Share by Ownership, 2013 193

Table 75: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Private Hospitals, Share by Ownership, 2013 194

Table 76: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Hospitals by Standard of Care, Contracted by NHIA, 2008-2013 195

Table 77: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Hospitals by Services Rendered, 2013 196

Table 78: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Beds by Type of Hospital, 2008-2013 197

Table 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Beds by Specialty Care, 2013 199

Table 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Diagnostic Equipment, 2008-2013 200

Table 81: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 201

Table 82: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Doctors (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 202

Table 83: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, PM10 (µgm/m3), 2008-2013 204

Table 84: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, CO2 emissions (million tons), 2008-2013 206

Table 85: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Nurses (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 207

Table 86: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Pharmacists (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 208

Table 87: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Dentists (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 209

Table 88: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), 2008-2013 211

Table 89: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Provider (%), 2011 212

Table 90: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Mode of Production (%), 2011 213

Table 91: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 214

Table 92: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Pharmaceutical R&D Expenditure, 2008-2013 215

Table 93: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Major Healthcare Trade Fairs, 2015 217

List of Figures

Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Taiwan, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 21

Figure 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Taiwan, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 22

Figure 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Taiwan, Exports and Imports ($bn), 2008-2013 23

Figure 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Taiwan, Market Segments of Newly Emerging Biotech Industry by Share (%), 2009 26

Figure 5: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 64

Figure 6: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 65

Figure 7: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Nephrology and Urology Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 66

Figure 8: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Nephrology and Urology Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players ($m), 2008-2012 67

Figure 9: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Ophthalmic Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 68

Figure 10: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Ophthalmic Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players ($m), 2008-2012 69

Figure 11: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, In Vitro Diagnostics Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 70

Figure 12: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, In Vitro Diagnostics Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players ($m), 2008-2012 71

Figure 13: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Cardiovascular Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 72

Figure 14: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Cardiovascular Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players ($m), 2008-2012 73

Figure 15: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Orthopedic Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 74

Figure 16: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Orthopedic Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players ($m), 2008-2012 75

Figure 17: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 76

Figure 18: Medical Device Market, Taiwan, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($m), 2014-2020 77

Figure 19: Healthcare Market, Taiwan, Drivers and Barriers, 2014 109

Figure 20: Healthcare System, Taiwan, Financial Flow in Healthcare System, 2014 112

Figure 21: Healthcare System, Taiwan, Evolution of Healthcare System, 2014 113

Figure 22: Healthcare System, Taiwan, Reimbursement Process, 2013 115

Figure 23: Market Access, Taiwan, Process for Coverage and Reimbursement of Medical Devices, 2013 116

Figure 24: Healthcare System, Taiwan, Premium Collection under Second-Generation NHI System, 2014 118

Figure 25: Healthcare Spending, Taiwan, Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (%), 2008-2013 121

Figure 26: Market Access, Taiwan, Price Trend in Healthcare Services (%), 2008-2013 122

Figure 27: Market Access, Taiwan, Organization Structure of Center for Drug Evaluation, 2014 125

Figure 28: Market Access, Taiwan, Marketing Authorization Procedure for New Drug, 2014 128

Figure 29: Market Access, Taiwan, New Drug Evaluation Process, 2014 128

Figure 30: Market Access, Taiwan, HTA Process for New Drug Listing Application with the NHIA, 2014 129

Figure 31: Market Access, Taiwan, Marketing Authorization Procedure for Medical Devices, 2013 133

Figure 32: Market Access, Taiwan, Clinical Trial Regulation Process for an Investigational New Drug, 2014 141

Figure 33: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 150

Figure 34: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 151

Figure 35: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, GDP Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 152

Figure 36: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 153

Figure 37: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 154

Figure 38: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 155

Figure 39: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 156

Figure 40: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 157

Figure 41: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Currency Exchange Rate (TWD/$), 2008-2013 158

Figure 42: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 160

Figure 43: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 161

Figure 44: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 162

Figure 45: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 164

Figure 46: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 165

Figure 47: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, General Government Gross Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 166

Figure 48: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, General Government Gross Debt Forecast (% of GDP), 2014-2020 167

Figure 49: Economic Indicators, Taiwan, Major Industries, Gross Domestic Product by Industry ($bn), 2013 168

Figure 50: Demographics, Taiwan, Population (million), 2008-2013 170

Figure 51: Demographics, Taiwan, Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 171

Figure 52: Demographics, Taiwan, Urban-Rural Population (%), 2008-2013 172

Figure 53: Demographics, Taiwan, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 173

Figure 54: Demographics, Taiwan, Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 174

Figure 55: Demographics, Taiwan, Births (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 175

Figure 56: Demographics, Taiwan, Mortality (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 176

Figure 57: Demographics, Taiwan, Major Causes of Mortality (per 100,000 population), 2013 177

Figure 58: Demographics, Taiwan, Children under Five, Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live births), 2008-2013 179

Figure 59: Demographics, Taiwan, Immunization Rate (%), 2013 181

Figure 60: Demographics, Taiwan, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 182

Figure 61: Demographics, Taiwan, Life Expectancy at Birth (years), 2008-2013 184

Figure 62: Demographics, Taiwan, Student Net Enrollment by Level of Education (%), 2013 186

Figure 63: Demographics, Taiwan, Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 187

Figure 64: Demographics, Taiwan, Employment by Sector (?000), 2013 188

Figure 65: Demographics, Taiwan, Personal Health Expenditure by Disease (%), 2013 189

Figure 66: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Hospitals, 2008-2013 191

Figure 67: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Public and Private Hospitals, 2008-2013 192

Figure 68: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Public Hospitals, Share by Ownership (%), 2013 193

Figure 69: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Private Hospitals, Share by Ownership (%), 2013 194

Figure 70: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Hospitals by Standard of Care, Contracted by NHIA, 2008-2013 195

Figure 71: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Hospitals by Services Rendered (%), 2013 196

Figure 72: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Beds by Type of Hospital, 2008-2013 197

Figure 73: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Beds by Specialty Care, 2013 198

Figure 74: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Diagnostic Equipment, 2008-2013 200

Figure 75: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 201

Figure 76: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Doctors (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 202

Figure 77: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, PM10 (µgm/m3), 2008-2013 204

Figure 78: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, CO2 emissions (million tons), 2008-2013 205

Figure 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Nurses (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 207

Figure 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Pharmacists (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 208

Figure 81: Healthcare Infrastructure, Taiwan, Dentists (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 209

Figure 82: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), 2008-2013 210

Figure 83: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Provider (%), 2011 211

Figure 84: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Mode of Production (%), 2011 212

Figure 85: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 214

Figure 86: Healthcare Expenditure, Taiwan, Pharmaceutical R&D Expenditure ($m), 2008-2013 215

Figure 87: Healthcare Market, Taiwan, Opportunities and Challenges, 2014 220

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