CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Republic of China (Taiwan)

Publisher Name:
Published Date: 1-Jun-2014
No. of pages: 262

GlobalData, the industry analysis specialist, has released its latest report, “CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape Republic of China (Taiwan)”. The report is an essential source of information and analysis on the healthcare, regulatory and reimbursement landscape in the Republic of China (Taiwan). It identifies the key trends in the country’s healthcare market and provides insights into its demographic, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape and healthcare infrastructure. Most importantly, the report provides valuable insights into the trends and segmentation of its pharmaceutical and medical device markets. It is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, secondary research, and in-house analysis by GlobalData’s team of industry experts.

The population of Taiwan increased slightly between 2008 and 2013 from 23.0 to 23.4 million, mainly due to rising life expectancy. However, the birth rate decreased at a negative Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 0.04% between 2008 and 2013. Government incentives such as those for new pharmaceutical companies establishing themselves in Taiwan, which include a reduction in income tax, will encourage foreign companies to invest. The country’s pharmaceutical market was estimated at $5.7 billion in 2013 and is projected to reach $8.2 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 5.2%. The medical device market was worth $2.2 billion in 2013 and is projected to reach $3.1 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 5.0%.

These positive growth trends can primarily be attributed to -

  • An increasing elderly population
  • Universal health coverage
  • Government initiatives

Scope

The report provides information on the healthcare, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape in Taiwan, and includes -

  • An overview of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets, comprising market size, segmentation, and key drivers and barriers
  • Profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the pharmaceutical market: Pfizer, Sanofi-aventis, GlaxoSmithKline, Yung Shin Pharmaceutical and China Chemical & Pharmaceutical
  • Insightful review of the reimbursement and regulatory landscape, with analysis covering details of the country’s healthcare reimbursement process, regulatory agencies and the approval processes for new drugs and medical devices
  • Detailed analysis of the political and economic environment, covering economic indicators, demographics, healthcare infrastructure and healthcare expenditure
  • An overview of the opportunities for and challenges to growth in the Taiwanese healthcare market

Reasons to buy

This report will enhance your decision-making capability by allowing you to -

  • Develop business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Taiwan’s healthcare market
  • Drive revenues by understanding the key trends, reimbursement and regulatory policies, pharmaceutical market segments, and companies likely to affect Taiwan’s healthcare market in the future
  • Formulate effective sales and marketing strategies by understanding the competitive landscape and analyzing the performance of various competitors
  • Organize your sales and marketing efforts by identifying the market categories and segments that present the best opportunities for consolidation, investment, and strategic partnership
  • Identify, understand, and capitalize on the opportunities and challenges in Taiwan’s healthcare market

Table of Contents For This Report

Table of Contents

1 Table of Contents5

1.1 List of Tables 8

1.2 List of Figures 14

2 Introduction 20

2.1 GlobalData Report Guidance 20

3 Overview of the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Markets 21

3.1 Pharmaceutical Market 21

3.1.1 Market Overview 21

3.1.2 Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 23

3.1.3 Supply Channels 25

3.1.4 Market Segments 25

3.1.5 Overview of Top Five Disease Areas 29

3.1.6 Major Players 31

3.2 Medical Device Market 68

3.2.1 Market Overview 68

3.2.2 Overview of Top Five Segments 70

3.2.3 Diagnostic market 83

3.2.4 Major Players 86

3.3 Market Drivers and Barriers 116

3.3.1 Drivers 116

3.3.2 Barriers 117

4 Market Access 119

4.1 Reimbursement and Payer Landscape 119

4.1.1 Overview of Healthcare System 119

4.1.2 Reimbursement Process 121

4.1.3 Overview of Insurance Providers 124

4.1.4 Patient Share in Healthcare Spending 129

4.1.5 Price Trend in Healthcare Services 131

4.1.6 Pricing Policies 132

4.2 Regulatory Landscape 133

4.2.1 Overview of Regulatory Agencies 133

4.2.2 Market Authorization Procedure for Pharmaceutical Products 135

4.2.3 Market Authorization Procedure for Medical Devices 140

4.2.4 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Manufacturing 143

4.2.5 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 146

4.2.6 Intellectual Property Rights 147

4.2.7 Clinical Trial Regulations 150

4.2.8 Pharmaceutical Advertising Regulations 152

4.2.9 Pharmacy Regulations 153

4.2.10 Labeling and Packaging Regulations 154

5 Country Analysis 155

5.1 Political Environment 155

5.1.1 Political Structure 155

5.1.2 Analysis of the Current Political Environment 156

5.1.3 Healthcare Policy Initiatives 157

5.2 Economic Landscape 158

5.3 Economic Indicators 160

5.3.1 Gross Domestic Product 160

5.3.2 National Income per Capita 164

5.3.3 Inflation 165

5.3.4 Currency Exchange Rate 169

5.3.5 Foreign Direct Investment 171

5.3.6 Foreign Exchange Reserves 173

5.3.7 Trade Balance 174

5.3.8 Government Structural Balance 177

5.3.9 General Government Gross Debt 179

5.3.10 Major Industries 181

5.4 Demographics 183

5.4.1 Population 183

5.4.2 Education and Literacy 200

5.4.3 Employment 202

5.4.4 Disease Burden 204

5.5 Healthcare Infrastructure 206

5.5.1 Healthcare Facilities 206

5.5.2 Healthcare Parameters 217

5.5.3 Environmental Health 219

5.5.4 Healthcare Personnel 224

5.6 Healthcare Expenditure 228

5.6.1 Overview 228

5.6.2 Major Components of Healthcare Spending 229

5.6.3 Public and Private Sector Share 231

5.6.4 Spending in Pharmaceutical R&D 233

5.7 Trade Associations 234

5.7.1 Taiwan Medical and Biotech Industry Association 234

5.7.2 Taiwan Public Health Association 234

5.7.3 Taiwan Medical Association 234

5.7.4 Taiwan Generic Pharmaceutical Association 234

5.8 Trade Fairs 235

6 Opportunities and Challenges 236

6.1 Opportunities 236

6.2 Challenges 237

7 Appendix 239

7.1 Abbreviations 239

7.2 Bibliography 244

7.3 Research Methodology 259

7.3.1 Coverage 259

7.3.2 Secondary Research 260

7.3.3 Forecasts 260

7.3.4 Expert Panel 260

7.4 Disclaimer 261

List of Tables

Table 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 21

Table 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 22

Table 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Population, Exports and Imports ($m), 2008-2013 23

Table 4: Pharmaceutical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Market Segments of Newly Emerging Biotech Industry, Share (%), 2009 27

Table 5: Pharmaceutical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Top Five Therapeutic Areas, Total Expenditure on Personal Health Care, 2012 28

Table 6: Pfizer, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 31

Table 7: Pharmaceutical Market, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, Pfizer, 2014 32

Table 8: Sanofi, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 40

Table 9: Sanofi, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2013 41

Table 10: GlaxoSmithKline, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 49

Table 11: Pharmaceutical Market, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, GlaxoSmithKline, 2014 50

Table 12: Major Products, China Chemical & Pharmaceutical, 2013 62

Table 13: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 68

Table 14: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 69

Table 15: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Nephrology and Urology Devices Market ($m), 2008-2013 71

Table 16: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Nephrology and Urology Devices Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 72

Table 17: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Ophthalmic Devices Market ($m), 2008-2013 73

Table 18: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Ophthalmic Devices Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 74

Table 19: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), In Vitro Diagnostics Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 76

Table 20: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), In Vitro Diagnostics Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 77

Table 21: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Cardiovascular Devices Market ($m), 2008-2013 78

Table 22: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Cardiovascular Devices Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 79

Table 23: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Orthopedic Device Market, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 81

Table 24: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Orthopedic Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 82

Table 25: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 83

Table 26: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Diagnostic Market, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 84

Table 27: Major Products, Baxter International, Global, Revenue ($m) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 86

Table 28: Major Products, Fresenius Medical Care, 2013 92

Table 29: Medtronic, Global, Major Products Classes, 2014 109

Table 30: Healthcare System, Republic of China (Taiwan), NHI Premium Formulas, 2014 126

Table 31: Healthcare System, Republic of China (Taiwan), Basic Outpatient Care Co-payments, 2014 127

Table 32: Healthcare System, Republic of China (Taiwan), Basic Outpatient Care Co-payments, 2014 128

Table 33: Healthcare Spending, Republic of China (Taiwan), Out-of-Pocket Expenditure as Share of Total Healthcare Expenditure (%), 2008-2013 129

Table 34: Price of Prescription Drugs, Republic of China (Taiwan), Medical Care Services Price Trend (%), 2008-2013 131

Table 35: Healthcare System, Republic of China (Taiwan), Registration Fee Structure for New Drug Application ($), 2012 138

Table 36: Healthcare System, Republic of China (Taiwan), Regulatory Requirements for Medical Devices, 2013 139

Table 37: Market Access, Republic of China (Taiwan), Trademark Fees ($), 2014 147

Table 38: Market Access, Republic of China (Taiwan), Trademark Fees, 2012 149

Table 39: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 160

Table 40: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 160

Table 41: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 162

Table 42: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 163

Table 43: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 164

Table 44: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 165

Table 45: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 166

Table 46: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 168

Table 47: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Currency Exchange Rate (TWD/$), 2008-2013 169

Table 48: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 171

Table 49: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 173

Table 50: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 174

Table 51: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 176

Table 52: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 177

Table 53: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), General Government Gross Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 178

Table 54: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), General Government Gross Debt Forecast (% of GDP), 2014-2020 179

Table 55: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Major Industries, Gross Domestic Product by Industry ($bn), 2012 181

Table 56: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Population (million), 2008-2013 183

Table 57: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 184

Table 58: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Urban-Rural Population (%), 2008-2013 185

Table 59: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 187

Table 60: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 187

Table 61: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Births (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 189

Table 62: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Mortality (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 190

Table 63: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Major Causes of Mortality (per 100,000 Population), 2012 192

Table 64: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Children Table 65: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Immunization Rate (%), 2012 195

Table 66: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 197

Table 67: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Life Expectancy at Birth (Years), 2008-2013 199

Table 68: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Student Net Enrollment by Level of Education (%), 2013 201

Table 69: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 202

Table 70: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Employment by Sector (%), 2012 203

Table 71: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Personal Health Expenditure by Disease (%), 2012 204

Table 72: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Male Personal Health Expenditure per Capita by Disease ($), 2012 204

Table 73: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Female Personal Health Expenditure per Capita by Diseases ($), 2012 205

Table 74: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Hospitals, 2008-2013 206

Table 75: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Public and Private Hospitals, 2008-2013 208

Table 76: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Public Hospitals, Share by Ownership and Number of Facilities, 2012 208

Table 77: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Private Hospitals, Share by Ownership and Number of Facilities, 2012 209

Table 78: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Hospitals by Standard of Care, Contracted by NHIA, 2008-2013 210

Table 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Hospitals by Services Rendered, 2012 211

Table 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Beds by Type of Hospital, 2008-2013 213

Table 81: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Beds by Specialty, 2012 214

Table 82: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Diagnostic Units, 2008-2013 215

Table 83: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Hospital Beds (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 217

Table 84: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Doctors (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 218

Table 85: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), PM10 (µg/m3), 2008-2013 220

Table 86: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), CO2 Emissions (million tons), 2008-2013 222

Table 87: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Nurses (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 224

Table 88: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Pharmacists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 225

Table 89: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Dentists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 226

Table 90: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), 2008-2013 228

Table 91: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Provider (%), 2011 229

Table 92: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Mode of Production (%), 2011 230

Table 93: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 231

Table 94: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Pharmaceutical R&D Expenditure, 2008-2013 232

Table 95: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Major Healthcare Trade Fairs, 2014 234

List of Figures

Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 22

Figure 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 23

Figure 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Population, Exports and Imports ($m), 2008-2013 24

Figure 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Market Segments of Newly Emerging Biotech Industry, Share (%), 2009 28

Figure 5: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 69

Figure 6: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 70

Figure 7: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Nephrology and Urology Devices Market ($m), 2008-2013 71

Figure 8: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Nephrology and Urology Devices Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue* ($m), 2008-2012 72

Figure 9: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Ophthalmic Devices Market ($m), 2008-2013 74

Figure 10: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Ophthalmic Devices Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 75

Figure 11: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), In Vitro Diagnostics Device Market ($m), 2008-2013 76

Figure 12: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), In Vitro Diagnostics Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 77

Figure 13: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Cardiovascular Devices Market ($m), 2008-2013 79

Figure 14: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Cardiovascular Devices Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 80

Figure 15: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Orthopedic Device Market, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 81

Figure 16: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Orthopedic Device Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 82

Figure 17: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 84

Figure 18: Medical Device Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Diagnostic Market, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 85

Figure 19: Healthcare Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Drivers and Barriers, 2013 118

Figure 20: Healthcare System, Republic of China (Taiwan), Financial Flow in the Healthcare System, 2013 120

Figure 21: Healthcare System, Republic of China (Taiwan), Evolution of the Healthcare System, 1950-2013 121

Figure 22: Healthcare System, Republic of China (Taiwan), Reimbursement Process, 2008 123

Figure 23: Market Access, Republic of China (Taiwan), Process for Coverage and Reimbursement of Medical Devices, 2014 124

Figure 24: Healthcare System, Republic of China (Taiwan), Premium Collection under Second-Generation NHI System, 2014 127

Figure 25: Healthcare Spending, Republic of China (Taiwan), Out-of-Pocket Expenditure as Share of Total Healthcare Expenditure (%), 2008-2013 130

Figure 26: Price of Prescription Drugs, Republic of China (Taiwan), Medical Care Services Price Trend (%), 2008-2013 132

Figure 27: Market Access, Republic of China (Taiwan), Organization Structure of CDE, 2014 135

Figure 28: Market Access, Republic of China (Taiwan), Marketing Authorization Procedure for New Drugs, 2014 137

Figure 29: Market Access, Republic of China (Taiwan), New Drug Evaluation Process, 2013 138

Figure 30: Market Access, Republic of China (Taiwan), HTA Process for New Drug Listing Application with the NHIA, 2013 139

Figure 31: Market Access, Republic of China (Taiwan), Marketing Authorization Procedure for Medical Devices, 2013 143

Figure 32: Market Access, Republic of China (Taiwan), Clinical Trial Regulation Process for an IND, 2013 152

Figure 33: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 160

Figure 34: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 161

Figure 35: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 162

Figure 36: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 163

Figure 37: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 164

Figure 38: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 166

Figure 39: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 167

Figure 40: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 168

Figure 41: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Currency Exchange Rate (TWD/$), 2008-2013 170

Figure 42: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 172

Figure 43: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 173

Figure 44: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 175

Figure 45: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 176

Figure 46: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 178

Figure 47: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), General Government Gross Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 179

Figure 48: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), General Government Gross Debt Forecast (% of GDP), 2014-2020 180

Figure 49: Economic Indicators, Republic of China (Taiwan), Major Industries, Gross Domestic Product by Industry ($bn), 2012 182

Figure 50: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Population (million), 2008-2013 184

Figure 51: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 185

Figure 52: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Urban-Rural Population (%), 2008-2013 186

Figure 53: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 187

Figure 54: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 188

Figure 55: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Births (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 190

Figure 56: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Mortality (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 191

Figure 57: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Major Causes of Mortality (per 100,000 Population), 2012 193

Figure 58: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Children Figure 59: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Immunization Rate (%), 2012 196

Figure 60: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 198

Figure 61: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Life Expectancy at Birth (Years), 2008-2013 199

Figure 62: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Student Net Enrollment by Level of Education (%), 2013 201

Figure 63: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 203

Figure 64: Demographics, Republic of China (Taiwan), Personal Health Expenditure by Disease (%), 2012 204

Figure 65: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Hospitals, 2008-2013 207

Figure 66: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Public and Private Hospitals, 2008-2013 208

Figure 67: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Public Hospitals, Share by Ownership (%), 2012 209

Figure 68: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Private Hospitals, Share by Ownership (%), 2012 210

Figure 69: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Hospitals by Standard of Care, Contracted by NHIA, 2008-2013 211

Figure 70: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Hospitals by Services Rendered (%), 2012 212

Figure 71: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Beds by Type of Hospital, 2008-2013 213

Figure 72: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Beds by Specialty, 2012 214

Figure 73: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Diagnostic Units, 2008-2013 216

Figure 74: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Hospital Beds (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 217

Figure 75: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Doctors (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 218

Figure 76: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), PM10 (µg/m3), 2008-2013 221

Figure 77: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), CO2 emissions (million tons), 2008-2013 223

Figure 78: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Nurses (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 225

Figure 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Pharmacists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 226

Figure 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Dentists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 227

Figure 81: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), 2008-2013 228

Figure 82: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Provider, Share (%), 2011 229

Figure 83: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Mode of Production (%), 2011 230

Figure 84: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 232

Figure 85: Healthcare Expenditure, Republic of China (Taiwan), Pharmaceutical R&D Expenditure ($m), 2008-2013 233

Figure 86: Healthcare Market, Republic of China (Taiwan), Opportunities and Challenges, 2013 238

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