CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Turkey

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Published Date: 1-Aug-2014
No. of pages: 252

GlobalData, the industry analysis specialist, has released its latest report, “CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape Turkey”. The report is an essential source of information on and analysis of the healthcare, regulatory and reimbursement landscape in Turkey. It identifies the key trends in the country’s healthcare market and provides insights into its demographic, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape and healthcare infrastructure. Most importantly, the report provides valuable insights into the trends and segmentation of its pharmaceutical and medical device markets. It uses data and information sourced from proprietary databases, secondary research, and in-house analysis by GlobalData’s team of industry experts.

Turkey’s population stood at approximately 76.7 million in 2013, having grown at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 1.4%, from 2008. The implementation of the Health Transformation Program (Saglikta Donus, um Programi, HTP) resulted in social security reforms that were aimed at improving the universal health coverage. The available infrastructure for healthcare industries and the high number of healthcare institutions makes Turkey an attractive location for the manufacture and marketing of pharmaceutical products.

The government is trying to increase pharmaceutical R&D in Turkey, and in 2012, it introduced a new investment incentives program that had four basic schemes to increase foreign investment. The pharmaceutical market was worth approximately $12.5 billion, in 2012, and was the sixth-largest pharmaceutical market in Europe. It is set to grow at a CAGR of 7.3% from 2008 to reach $21.5 billion in 2020. The medical device market was valued at approximately $1.9 billion in 2008 and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 4.7% to reach an estimated $3.3 billion in 2020. These positive growth trends can be primarily attributed to -

  • An increasing elderly population
  • Universal health coverage
  • Government initiatives

Scope

The report provides information on the healthcare, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape in Turkey, and includes -

  • An overview of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets, comprising market size, segmentation, and key drivers and barriers
  • Profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the pharmaceutical market: Abdi Ibrahim, Novartis, Sanofi, Bilim and Pfizer; and profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the medical device market: Siemens Healthcare, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Essilor International, GE healthcare, and Fresenius Medical Care
  • Insightful review of the reimbursement and regulatory landscape, with analysis covering details of the country’s healthcare reimbursement process, regulatory agencies and the approval processes for new drugs and medical devices
  • Detailed analysis of the political and economic environment, covering economic indicators, demographics, healthcare infrastructure and healthcare expenditure
  • An overview of the opportunities for and challenges to growth in the healthcare market

Reasons to buy

This report will enhance your decision-making capability by allowing you to -

  • Develop business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Turkey’s healthcare market
  • Drive revenues by understanding the key trends, reimbursement and regulatory policies, pharmaceutical market segments, and companies likely to affect Turkey’s healthcare market in the future
  • Formulate effective sales and marketing strategies by understanding the competitive landscape and analyzing the performance of various competitors
  • Organize your sales and marketing efforts by identifying the market categories and segments that present the best opportunities for consolidation, investment, and strategic partnerships
  • Identify, understand, and capitalize on the opportunities and challenges in Turkey’s healthcare market

Table of Contents For This Report

Table of Contents

1 Table of Contents 7

1.1 List of Tables 10

1.2 List of Figures 15

2 Introduction 19

2.1 GlobalData Report Guidance 19

3 Overview of the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Markets 20

3.1 Pharmaceutical Market 20

3.1.1 Market Overview 20

3.1.2 Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 23

3.1.3 Supply Channels 25

3.1.4 Market Segments 26

3.1.5 Overview of Top Five Disease Areas 31

3.1.6 Major Players 34

3.2 Medical Device Market 70

3.2.1 Market Overview 70

3.2.2 Overview of Top Five Segments 72

3.2.3 Diagnostic Market 85

3.2.4 Major Players 87

3.3 Market Drivers and Barriers 119

3.3.1 Drivers 119

3.3.2 Barriers 120

4 Market Access 122

4.1 Reimbursement and Payer Landscape 122

4.1.1 Overview of Healthcare System 122

4.1.2 Reimbursement Process 125

4.1.3 Overview of Insurance Providers 128

4.1.4 Patient Share in Healthcare Spending 132

4.1.5 Price Trend in Healthcare Services 133

4.1.6 Pricing Policies 134

4.2 Regulatory Landscape 136

4.2.1 Overview of Regulatory Agencies 136

4.2.2 Market Authorization Procedure for Pharmaceutical Products 139

4.2.3 Market Authorization Procedure for Medical Devices 143

4.2.4 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Manufacturing 145

4.2.5 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 145

4.2.6 Intellectual Property Rights 146

4.2.7 Clinical Trial Regulations 148

4.2.8 Pharmaceutical Advertising Regulations 150

4.2.9 Pharmacy Regulations 151

4.2.10 Labeling and Packaging Regulations 151

5 Country Analysis 153

5.1 Political Environment 153

5.1.1 Political Structure 153

5.1.2 Analysis of the Current Political Environment 155

5.1.3 Healthcare Policy Initiatives 156

5.2 Economic Landscape 157

5.3 Economic Indicators 158

5.3.1 Gross Domestic Product 158

5.3.2 Gross National Income 162

5.3.3 Inflation 163

5.3.4 Currency Exchange Rate 167

5.3.5 Foreign Direct Investment 168

5.3.6 Foreign Exchange Reserves 169

5.3.7 Trade Balance 170

5.3.8 General Government Structural Balance 173

5.3.9 General Government Net Debt 174

5.3.10 Major Industries 176

5.4 Demographics 177

5.4.1 Population 177

5.4.2 Education and Literacy 195

5.4.3 Employment 198

5.4.4 Disease Burden 199

5.5 Healthcare Infrastructure 203

5.5.1 Healthcare Facilities 203

5.5.2 Healthcare Parameters 207

5.5.3 Environmental Health 211

5.5.4 Healthcare Personnel 214

5.6 Healthcare Expenditure 219

5.6.1 Overview 219

5.6.2 Major Components of Healthcare Spending 220

5.6.3 Public and Private Sector Share 222

5.6.4 Spending in Healthcare, R&D 224

5.7 Trade Associations 225

5.7.1 Turkish Pharmacists’ Association 225

5.7.2 Pharmaceutical Manufacturer’s Association of Turkey 226

5.7.3 Turkish Confederation of Employer Associations 226

5.8 Trade Fairs 226

6 Opportunities and Challenges 228

6.1 Opportunities 228

6.2 Challenges 228

7 Appendix 230

7.1 Abbreviations 230

7.2 Bibliography 234

7.3 Research Methodology 249

7.3.1 Coverage 250

7.3.2 Secondary Research 250

7.3.3 Forecasts 251

7.3.4 Expert Panel 251

7.4 Disclaimer 251

List of Tables

Table 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 22

Table 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 23

Table 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports ($m), 2008-2013 24

Table 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Pharmaceutical Mark-Ups (%), 2009 25

Table 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Generics Market, Drug Consumption by Volume (%), 2008-2013 27

Table 6: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Biotechnology Market, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 30

Table 7: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Top Five Therapeutic Areas, Drug Consumption (%), 2012 31

Table 8: Pharmaceutical Market, Major Products, Abdi ?brahim, 2014 35

Table 9: Pharmaceutical Market, Pfizer, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 41

Table 10: Pharmaceutical Market, Pfizer, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2014* 42

Table 11: Pharmaceutical Market, Sanofi, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn), 2013 49

Table 12: Pharmaceutical Market, Sanofi, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2014* 50

Table 13: Pharmaceutical Market, Novartis, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 55

Table 14: Pharmaceutical Market, Novartis, Global, Planned Filings, 2014-2018* 56

Table 15: Pharmaceutical Market, New Products, Bilim, 2014 65

Table 16: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 71

Table 17: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 72

Table 18: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Ophthalmic Devices ($m), 2008-2013 74

Table 19: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Ophthalmic Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 74

Table 20: Medical Device Market, Turkey, In Vitro Diagnostics ($m), 2008-2013 76

Table 21: Medical Device Market, Turkey, In Vitro Diagnostics, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 77

Table 22: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Nephrology and Urology Devices ($m), 2008-2013 78

Table 23: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Nephrology and Urology Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 79

Table 24: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Imaging Market ($m), 2008-2013 81

Table 25: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Imaging Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 82

Table 26: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Cardiovascular Devices ($m), 2008-2013 83

Table 27: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Cardiovascular Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 84

Table 28: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 85

Table 29: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Market, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 86

Table 30: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Major Medical Device Companies Revenue, 2012 87

Table 31: Medical Device Market, Fresenius Medical Care, Global, Major Products, 2014 89

Table 32: Medical Device Market , Roche, Global, Major Products, 2014 95

Table 33: Healthcare System, Turkey, Discount Rates for Reimbursed Drugs at Retail Level (%), 2008 126

Table 34: Healthcare System, Turkey, Discount Rates for Reimbursed Drugs at Retail Level (%), 2008 127

Table 35: Healthcare System, Turkey, Type of Insurance and Premium Contribution Rates (%), 2011 131

Table 36: Healthcare Spending, Turkey, Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (%), 2008-2013 133

Table 37: Market Access, Turkey, Change in Average Price of Healthcare Services (%), 2008-2013 134

Table 38: Pricing Policies, Turkey, Reference Pricing System, 2014 135

Table 39: Pricing Policies, Turkey, Wholesaler and Pharmacist Profit Margins (%), 2014 135

Table 40: Market Access, Turkey, Patent Fees, 2014 147

Table 41: Market Access, Turkey, Trademark Fees, 2014 148

Table 42: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 159

Table 43: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 160

Table 44: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 161

Table 45: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 162

Table 46: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 163

Table 47: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 164

Table 48: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 165

Table 49: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 166

Table 50: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Currency Exchange Rate (TRY/$), 2008-2013 167

Table 51: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 168

Table 52: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 169

Table 53: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Imports of Goods and Services ($m), 2008-2013 171

Table 54: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Exports of Goods and Services ($m), 2008-2013 172

Table 55: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 174

Table 56: Economic Indicators, Turkey, General Government Net Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 175

Table 57: Economic Indicators, Turkey, General Government Net Debt Forecast (% of GDP), 2014-2020 175

Table 58: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Major Industries by Contribution to Gross Domestic Product, 2013 177

Table 59: Demographics, Turkey, Population (million), 2008-2013 178

Table 60: Demographics, Turkey, Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 179

Table 61: Demographics, Turkey, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share (%), 2008-2013 180

Table 62: Demographics, Turkey, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share Forecast (%), 2014-2020 181

Table 63: Demographics, Turkey, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 183

Table 64: Demographics, Turkey, Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 183

Table 65: Demographics, Turkey, Births (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 184

Table 66: Demographics, Turkey, Mortality (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 186

Table 67: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Mortality, 2013 187

Table 68: Demographics, Turkey, Children Table 69: Demographics, Turkey, Immunization Rate (%), 2008-2013 190

Table 70: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Male Mortality, 2013 191

Table 71: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Female Mortality, 2013 192

Table 72: Demographics, Turkey, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 193

Table 73: Demographics, Turkey, Life Expectancy at Birth (Years), 2008-2013 195

Table 74: Demographics, Turkey, Gross Schooling Ratio by Level of Education (%), 2012-2014 197

Table 75: Demographics, Turkey, Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 198

Table 76: Demographics, Turkey, Distribution of Employment by Sectors (%), 2013 199

Table 77: Demographics, Turkey, Number of Cases per Disease as Diagnosed by Physician, Rate (%), 2012 201

Table 78: Demographics, Turkey, Major Diseases, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (per 100,000 Population), 2004 202

Table 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Establishments, 2008-2013 204

Table 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Establishments, 2008-2013 205

Table 81: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Diagnostic Equipment (per 1,000,000 Population), 2008-2013 207

Table 82: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 208

Table 83: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Beds by Sector, 2008-2013 209

Table 84: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Doctors (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 210

Table 85: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, PM10 (µg/m3), 2008-2013 212

Table 86: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, CO2 Emissions (Million Metric Tons), 2008-2013 214

Table 87: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Nurses (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 216

Table 88: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Pharmacists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 217

Table 89: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Dentists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 218

Table 90: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Midwives (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 219

Table 91: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), 2008-2013 220

Table 92: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Mode of Production (%), 2012 222

Table 93: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 223

Table 94: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Higher Education Expenditure on R&D by Field of Science (%), 2012 225

Table 95: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Major Healthcare Trade Fairs, 2014-2015 227

List of Figures

Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 22

Figure 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 23

Figure 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports ($m), 2008-2013 24

Figure 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Supply Channel, 2014 25

Figure 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Generics Market, Drug Consumption by Volume (%), 2008-2013 27

Figure 6: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Biotechnology Market, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 30

Figure 7: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 71

Figure 8: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 72

Figure 9: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Ophthalmic Devices ($m), 2008-2013 73

Figure 10: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Ophthalmic Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 74

Figure 11: Medical Device Market, Turkey, In Vitro Diagnostics ($m), 2008-2013 75

Figure 12: Medical Device Market, Turkey, In Vitro Diagnostics, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 76

Figure 13: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Nephrology and Urology Devices ($m), 2008-2013 78

Figure 14: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Nephrology and Urology Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 79

Figure 15: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Imaging Market ($m), 2008-2013 80

Figure 16: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Imaging Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 81

Figure 17: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Cardiovascular Devices ($m), 2008-2013 83

Figure 18: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Cardiovascular Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 84

Figure 19: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 85

Figure 20: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Market, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 86

Figure 21: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Major Medical Device Companies Revenue ($m), 2012 87

Figure 22: Healthcare Market, Turkey, Drivers and Barriers, 2014 121

Figure 23: Healthcare System, Turkey, Organization of the Social Security Institution, 2011 124

Figure 24: Healthcare System, Turkey, Reimbursement Process, 2011 127

Figure 25: Healthcare System, Turkey, Social Security System, 2011 131

Figure 26: Healthcare Spending, Turkey, Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (%), 2008-2013 133

Figure 27: Market Access, Turkey, Change in Average Price of Healthcare Services (%), 2008-2013 134

Figure 28: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 159

Figure 29: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 160

Figure 30: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 161

Figure 31: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 162

Figure 32: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 163

Figure 33: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 164

Figure 34: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 165

Figure 35: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 166

Figure 36: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Currency Exchange Rate (TRY/$), 2008-2013 167

Figure 37: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 168

Figure 38: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 169

Figure 39: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Imports of Goods and Services ($m), 2008-2013 171

Figure 40: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Exports of Goods and Services ($m), 2008-2013 172

Figure 41: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 173

Figure 42: Economic Indicators, Turkey, General Government Net Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 174

Figure 43: Economic Indicators, Turkey, General Government Net Debt Forecast (% of GDP), 2014-2020 175

Figure 44: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Major Industries by Contribution to Gross Domestic Product, 2013 176

Figure 45: Demographics, Turkey, Population (million), 2008-2013 178

Figure 46: Demographics, Turkey, Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 179

Figure 47: Demographics, Turkey, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share (%), 2008-2013 180

Figure 48: Demographics, Turkey, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share Forecast (%), 2014-2020 181

Figure 49: Demographics, Turkey, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 182

Figure 50: Demographics, Turkey, Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 183

Figure 51: Demographics, Turkey, Births (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 184

Figure 52: Demographics, Turkey, Mortality (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 185

Figure 53: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Mortality, 2013 186

Figure 54: Demographics, Turkey, Children Figure 55: Demographics, Turkey, Immunization Rate (%), 2008-2013 189

Figure 56: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Male Mortality, 2013 191

Figure 57: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Female Mortality, 2013 192

Figure 58: Demographics, Turkey, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 193

Figure 59: Demographics, Turkey, Life Expectancy at Birth (Years), 2008-2013 194

Figure 60: Demographics, Turkey, Gross Schooling Ratio by Level of Education (%), 2012-2014 197

Figure 61: Demographics, Turkey, Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 198

Figure 62: Demographics, Turkey, Distribution of Employment by Sectors (%), 2013 199

Figure 63: Demographics, Turkey, Number of Cases per Disease as Diagnosed by Physician, Rate (%), 2012 200

Figure 64: Demographics, Turkey, Major Diseases, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (per 100,000 Population), 2004 202

Figure 65: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital, 2008-2013 204

Figure 66: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Establishments, 2008-2013 205

Figure 67: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Diagnostic Equipment (per 1,000,000 Population), 2008-2013 206

Figure 68: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 208

Figure 69: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Beds by Sector, 2008-2013 209

Figure 70: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Doctors (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 210

Figure 71: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, PM10 (µg/m3), 2008-2013 212

Figure 72: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, CO2 Emissions (Million Metric Tons), 2008-2013 214

Figure 73: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Nurses (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 215

Figure 74: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Pharmacists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 216

Figure 75: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Dentists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 217

Figure 76: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Midwives (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 218

Figure 77: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), 2008-2013 220

Figure 78: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Mode of Production (%), 2012 221

Figure 79: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 223

Figure 80: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Higher Education Expenditure on R&D by Field of Science (%), 2012 225

Figure 81: Healthcare Market, Turkey, Opportunities and Challenges, 2014 229

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